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Richter's detailed history underscores the unorthodoxy of Spanish surrealism. Garcia Lorca's filmscript for Viaje a la luna and play El publico classified as surreal and illustrate the eclecticism of Garcia Lorca's artistic efforts. Abundant notes elucidate the evolution and variations of surrealism from its initial appearance to more recent times.

Summing Up: Recommended.

ETHNIC IDENTITY AND CULTURAL APPROPRIATION IN EARLY OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE

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Hollanda Araştırma Enstitüsü - Nederlands Instituut in Turkije

Techniques, shapes and decorative motifs were all affected. Until the Early Modern period Western ceramics had very little influence, but Islamic pottery was very sought after in Europe, and often copied. An example of this is the albarello , a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs. The development of this type of pharmacy jar had its roots in the Islamic Middle East.

Hispano-Moresque examples were exported to Italy, stimulating the earliest Italian examples, from 15th century Florence. The Hispano-Moresque style emerged in Al-Andaluz or Muslim Spain in the 8th century, under Egyptian influence, but most of the best production was much later, by potters presumed to have been largely Muslim but working in areas reconquered by the Christian kingdoms. It mixed Islamic and European elements in its designs, and much was exported across neighbouring European countries.

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It had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe : glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze , and painting in metallic lusters. Ottoman İznik pottery produced most of the best work in the 16th century, in tiles and large vessels boldly decorated with floral motifs influenced, once again, by Chinese Yuan and Ming ceramics.

These were still in earthenware; there was no porcelain made in Islamic countries until modern times, though Chinese porcelain was imported and admired. The medieval Islamic world also had pottery with painted animal and human imagery. Examples are found throughout the medieval Islamic world, particularly in Persia and Egypt. The earliest grand Islamic buildings, like the Dome of the Rock , in Jerusalem had interior walls decorated with mosaics in the Byzantine style, but without human figures.

From the 9th century onwards the distinctive Islamic tradition of glazed and brightly coloured tiling for interior and exterior walls and domes developed. Some earlier schemes create designs using mixtures of tiles each of a single colour that are either cut to shape or are small and of a few shapes, used to create abstract geometric patterns. Later large painted schemes use tiles painted before firing with a part of the scheme — a technique requiring confidence in the consistent results of firing. Some elements, especially the letters of inscriptions, may be moulded in three-dimensional relief , and in especially in Persia certain tiles in a design may have figurative painting of animals or single human figures.

Seljuk & Ottoman Architecture

These were often part of designs mostly made up of tiles in plain colours but with larger fully painted tiles at intervals. The larger tiles are often shaped as eight-pointed stars, and may show animals or a human head or bust, or plant or other motifs. The geometric patterns, such as modern North African zellige work, made of small tiles each of a single colour but different and regular shapes, are often referred to as " mosaic ", which is not strictly correct. The Mughals made much less use of tiling, preferring and being able to afford "parchin kari", a type of pietra dura decoration from inlaid panels of semi-precious stones, with jewels in some cases.

This can be seen at the Taj Mahal , Agra Fort and other imperial commissions. The motifs are usually floral, in a simpler and more realistic style than Persian or Turkish work, relating to plants in Mughal miniatures. Islam took over much of the traditional glass-producing territory of Sassanian and Ancient Roman glass , and since figurative decoration played a small part in pre-Islamic glass, the change in style is not abrupt, except that the whole area initially formed a political whole, and, for example, Persian innovations were now almost immediately taken up in Egypt.

For this reason it is often impossible to distinguish between the various centres of production, of which Egypt, Syria and Persia were the most important, except by scientific analysis of the material, which itself has difficulties.

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Between the 8th and early 11th centuries the emphasis in luxury glass is on effects achieved by "manipulating the surface" of the glass, initially by incising into the glass on a wheel, and later by cutting away the background to leave a design in relief. Lustre painting, by techniques similar to lustreware in pottery, dates back to the 8th century in Egypt, and became widespread in the 12th century. Another technique was decoration with threads of glass of a different colour, worked into the main surface, and sometimes manipulated by combing and other effects. Gilded , painted and enamelled glass were added to the repertoire, and shapes and motifs borrowed from other media, such as pottery and metalwork.

Some of the finest work was in mosque lamps donated by a ruler or wealthy man. As decoration grew more elaborate, the quality of the basic glass decreased, and it "often has a brownish-yellow tinge, and is rarely free from bubbles".


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  4. By about the Venetians were receiving large orders for mosque lamps. Medieval Islamic metalwork offers a complete contrast to its European equivalent, which is dominated by modelled figures and brightly coloured decoration in enamel , some pieces entirely in precious metals. In contrast surviving Islamic metalwork consists of practical objects mostly in brass , bronze, and steel, with simple, but often monumental, shapes, and surfaces highly decorated with dense decoration in a variety of techniques, but colour mostly restricted to inlays of gold, silver, copper or black niello.

    The most abundant survivals from medieval periods are fine brass objects, handsome enough to preserve, but not valuable enough to be melted down. The abundant local sources of zinc compared to tin explains the rarity of bronze.

    Household items, such as ewers or water pitchers, were made of one or more pieces of sheet brass soldered together and subsequently worked and inlaid. The use of drinking and eating vessels in gold and silver, the ideal in ancient Rome and Persia as well as medieval Christian societies, is prohibited by the Hadiths , as was the wearing of gold rings.

    Islamic work includes some three-dimensional animal figures as fountainheads or aquamaniles , but only one significant enamelled object is known, using Byzantine cloisonne techniques. More common objects given elaborate decoration include massive low candlesticks and lamp-stands, lantern lights, bowls, dishes, basins, buckets these probably for the bath , [45] and ewers , as well as caskets, pen-cases and plaques. Ewers and basins were brought for hand-washing before and after each meal, so are often lavishly treated display pieces.

    A typical 13th century ewer from Khorasan is decorated with foliage, animals and the Signs of the Zodiac in silver and copper, and carries a blessing. Decoration is typically densely packed and very often includes arabesques and calligraphy, sometimes naming an owner and giving a date. High levels of achievement were reached in other materials, including hardstone carvings and jewellery, ivory carving, textiles and leatherwork.